Date

Worms in dogs: 10 species owners should know

Partager sur facebook
Partager sur whatsapp
Partager sur tumblr
Partager sur pinterest
Partager sur email

« Worms in dogs » | This article presents pet owners with 10 species owners should know. It explains how worms affect dogs and, in some occasions, their owners. Diseases that can be passed to humans by animals are called zoonoses. They represent serious matter of concern for public health. Thus, it is important for pet owners to be aware of the existence of such conditions and understand how to prevent such diseases in pets (and people).

 

Disclaimer:

  • This blog is intended as a source of general information for pet owners. It does not constitute specific veterinary advice towards a particular medical case. If you are concerned with a particular aspect of your pet’s health, please, book a video appointment to talk with a qualified veterinarian.
worms in dogs
Worms in dogs

Worms in dogs: Roundworms

Roundworm is a common name for a category of worms called Nematodes. They are called this way because of their thread-like appearance. Many different parasitic species of worms in dogs belong to this category. The section below, introduces several roundworms that may be of interest to dog owners; or to people interacting with dogs.

Necropsy in a dog with Dirofilaria immitis
Necropsy in a dog with Dirofilaria immitis

Heartworms and lungworms

Species 1: Dirofilaria immitis / Dirofilaria repens (zoonose)

 

Those worms are also known as filarial nematodes. They are found in many areas of southern Europe such as Spain, Greece, Italy, South of France. They are transmitted by certain species of mosquitoes.

 

Dogs who do not live in these countries can potentially acquire Dirofilaria immitis whilst travelling on a holiday with their owners. Dirofilaria immitis is known to cause heartworm disease in dogs and may occasionally infect humans. Antiparasites products are available to help prevent heartworm disease in dogs.

 

Dirofilaria repens is responsible for a skin problem in dogs, where the adult worm is found living under the skin. The larval stage, called microfilariae, circulates in the blood stream. Since microfilariae are present in the blood, mosquitoes can pick them up during a blood meal and pass them to other individuals, where it may grow into an adult worm. 

 

In infected humans, Dirofilaria repens remains in its immature form and is well-known for a condition called human Dirofilariosis. It causes the apparition of nodules under the skin and a syndrome called larva migrans, where the eyes may become infected. This condition can be treated both medically and surgically (removal of the worm).

 

In the first half of the 2000s, parasitologists became concerned after cases of dirofilariosis with Dirofilaria repens were, for example, found in Germany in several hunting dogs (2004) and in a few others, hosted at a kennel in the Berlin area (2007). Those dogs had not travelled outside of Germany, neither they had been imported into the country.

 

Consequently, it was understood that Dirofilaria repens was starting to become an « emergent pathogen » through dissemination of mosquitoes from southern to northern Europe, but also through increase travels of dogs in endemic areas. Antiparasites medicines are designed to prevent and treat Dirofilaria repens infection in dogs (major reservoir), which in turn lowers the probability for mosquitoes to pass it to humans.

 

Species 2: Angiostrongylus vasorum

 

Angiostrongylus vasorum is a worm which has gained increasing attention due to its spread across geographies worldwide. This worm is transmitted to dogs via the random ingestion of snails or slugs. Historically, A. vasorum is known as the « French heartworm » because it was first observed in this country. 

 

This worm is responsible for a potentially fatal disease in dogs infected with it. Symptoms will vary from no particular observable signs to life-threatening respiratory and neurological problems, as well as bleeding.

 

Thankfully, antiparasites products allow to prevent this worm from threatening dogs’ lives. Veterinarians are also in a position to detect the presence of Angiostrongylus vasorum with a rapid test kit, directly performed at the veterinary clinic. 

 

Other means of testing require either more time or resources and are potentially more invasive for the dog: faecal sample analysis (Baermann test) or PCR test performed on the fluid collected from a bronchoalveolar lavage.

 

A study performed in Belgium (2016) aimed at understanding the extent to which A. vasorum was spread amongst the canine population in the southern part of the country. Results revealed that A. vasorum was present in dogs who would not show any symptoms. Therefore, those dogs represent a risk, since they would keep releasing larval stages in their faeces and maintain the life-cycle of the worm active. 

 

Additionally, the study recommended to be mindful of those dogs who tend to pick up and eat random things, such as slugs or snails, in areas where the worm is known to be present. Those dogs should be monitored and receive adequate preventive treatment.

 

Species 3: Crenosoma vulpis

 

Crenosoma vulpis is another type of lungworms known to infect the respiratory system of red foxes, dogs and badgers. The worm is encountered across geographies such as Europe and North America.

 

Researchers are still studying the distribution of C. vulpis across geographies, however it is now known that a snail called Cornu aspersum also called common garden snail, might represent a « suitable intermediate host of C. vulpis ».

 

Sepcies 4: Eucoleus bohemi (Capillari boehmi)

 

Eucoleus bohemi is a worm infecting nasal cavities of dogs and wild species such as foxes. This worm is often misdiagnosed whereas infected animals show symptoms such as nose bleed, sneezing, coughing and a loss of their ability to smell.

 

Literature on the topic reports some challenge in correctly diagnosing and treating this parasitic infection, even whit antiparasite treatments.

 

Hence, research currently suggests a strategy based upon a combination of actions owners may take:

  • Preventing their dogs from eating faeces
  • Regularly carrying faecal samples
  • Keeping up to date with antiparasite treatments

Spirocercosis

Species 5: Spirocerca lupi

 

Spirocercosis is a potentially deadly disease affecting dogs who swallow the intermediate hosts of this endoparasite, such as a beetle or lizards, birds or rodents.

 

After ingestion, the larvae of Spirocerca lupi is released from its host into the dog’s stomach and will start to migrate to its final destination, the wall of the oesophagus, via blood vessels. Once there, it is able to reproduce and release eggs.

 

This has consequences for the dog because the parasite forms nodules in the oesophagus, leading to symptoms such as regurgitation, vomiting, esophagitis, gastric reflux as well as a wealth of serious complication, including sudden death. 

 

Furthermore, in 8 to 26% of cases, those nodules have a potential to turn into a type of cancer called sarcoma. In its malignant form, spirocercosis is treated by surgical removal of nodules and chemotherapy. However, the outcome remaining poor, it is expected that detection of those nodules and their removal happen before they reach a malignant stage.

 

Early detection of the parasitic disease in its benign form allows for medical treatment of the dog with the relevant protocol.

 

In 2019, an article published in the Vet Record (online), gave an account of a diagnosed case of spirocercosis found in the UK in a 2 year old female crossbreed dog who had been imported from Hungary 4 months prior presentation to a university vet hospital.

 

The dog unfortunately passed away 2 days after undergoing surgery for resection of the nodule lodged into her stomach, which nodules was filled with Spirocerca lupi worms.

 

Eye worms

Species 6: Thelazia callipaeda (zoonose)

 

The larvae of T. callipaeda is transmitted to both humans and animals by fruitflies who land in the conjunctiva of those hosts. 

 

Initially a condition reported in Asian countries, it is now increasingly noticed in Europe, affecting both cats and dogs, as well as wild species such as foxes.

 

The infection can be transmitted to humans, especially in countries of southern Europe: France, Spain, Switzerland and Italy but also in eastern european countries.

 

The symptoms observed are as reported in literature: « ocular pruritus, lacrimation, congestion and discharge, epiphora, exudative conjunctivitis, corneal edema to keratitis and corneal ulceration in severe cases. »

 

The treatment involves removing the worms manually and providing antiparasite medicines in the category of macrocyclic lactones.

 

Thelazia callipaeda in the eye of a dog
Thelazia callipaeda in the eye of a dog

Hookworms

Species 7: Ancylostoma caninum / Uncinaria stenocephala

 

This condition is also known as ancylostomiasis and gather species of roundworms such as Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala. They live in the small intestine of dogs and are referred to as « voracious blood-sucking adults and fourth stage larvae » in textbooks

 

As a result, dogs infested with those worms will suffer blood loss, manifested by anemia, and enteritis. The infection with the larval stage of the worms happens either by direct ingestion or through penetration of the skin. 

 

More specifically, Ancylostoma caninum is transmitted to puppies feeding colostrum from their mother. There is a potential for cutaneous larvae migrans in humans (zoonose) with the species called Ancylostoma brasilensis, which also affect pets.

 

Diagnosis is made either via necropsy of the pups who have died in the litter or via faecal sample analysis (egg identification). 

 

For animals exhibiting acute symptoms, treatment consists of supportive care depending on the severity of the situation, as well as administering antiparasite medication. In all other cases, prevention and treatment with the relevant antiparasite treatment is indicated.

Whipworms

Species 8: Trichuris vulpis

 

The condition is also called trichuriasis with the whipworms infecting the caecum of dogs. Dogs contaminate themselves by ingesting feces contaminated with eggs of T. vulpis. It is worth noting that eggs can remain in the environment for months to years.

 

Following contamination, the symptoms can be inexistent to severe, including diarrhea which might contain fresh blood, dehydration, anemia and weight loss.

 

Diagnosis is made with a faecal sample analysis and the condition can be treated with antiparasite medication. 

 

Trichuris trichiuria is the whipworm infecting humans. There is no substantial evidence that T. vulpis can be passed to humans.

Trichuris vulpis - Whipworm
Trichuris vulpis - Whipworm

Ascarid worm infection

Species 9: Toxocara canis (zoonose) / Toxascaris leonina

 

The disease is also known as toxocariasis and concerns the infestation of dogs with small round worms. Young puppies and pregnant bitches are most likely affected. Puppies usually acquire the worms from their mother ( transplacental transmission). Adult dogs seldom show symptoms, although they can contaminate themselves by ingesting feces or an intermediate host of the parasite, a rat for example. It is worth noting that T. canis infects dogs whereas T. leonina can infect both cats and dogs.

 

Worms belonging to the Toxocara genera are responsible for zoonotic diseases as they can transfer to humans via ingestions of eggs from contaminated places. Ingestion, especially by children, may result in cases of larva migrans (visceral and ocular) but also may lead to intestinal obstruction when the load of worms in intestines becomes important.

 

Infested puppies will either show no signs or a pot-bellied appearance, which might prompt to investigate the matter further. Infestation might be accompanied by signs such as vomiting or diarrhea with or without presence of visible worms. 

 

Eggs are known to be resistant in the environment and hard to totally destroy, even with chemicals. Since the potential for zoonose is known, it is recommended that pet owners deworm their young pets with the appropriate antiparasite treatment. Pets can re-infect themselves with increase risk to contaminate humans, especially children and immunosuppressed individuals. Therefore, it is important for pet owners to keep pets up to date with antiparasite treatments. 

 

Toxocara canis L2
Toxocara canis L2

Worms in dogs: Tapeworms

Tapeworms represent a category of flat parasitic worms. They can infect many different species of animals. The section below informs on one of the disease some of them can cause in dogs.

Cestodiasis infection

Species 10: Mesocestoides lineatus / Mesocestoides corti (potential zoonose)

 

Dogs contaminate themselves with the stage 3 of the larval form, called a tetrathyridia. This larval stage is present in the small preys dogs may hunt and ingest, such as snakes, birds and some categories of small mammals.

 

Once ingested, the tetrathyridia will develop into the adult worm within the intestines. However, in some occasions, the larvae may migrate in other organs (liver, lungs, subcutaneous tissues) and trigger some symptoms such as anorexia, breathing difficulties and abdominal distension accompanied by an inflammatory response leading to ascites and pleural effusion (fluids in chest and abdomen).

 

The treatment is based on administration of antiparasite medication and attempts to remove the parasites by lavage. However, in some occasions, the parasites may never disappear and signs will come back. 

 

Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp.
Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp.

Further source of information and readings

visionimo logo
Partager sur facebook
Partager sur whatsapp
Partager sur tumblr
Partager sur pinterest
Partager sur email

Conditions générales de vente

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo. 

Politique de confidentialité

1) DONNÉES PERSONNELLES

Les données présentes sur le formulaire de contact sont sauvegardées dans un fichier informatisé par Visionimo dont le délégué à la protection des données est Sabine Rutili : visionimovetpractice@gmail.com pour les besoins liés aux échanges avec le site Visionimovet.com. Le traitement est effectué sur la base des intérêts légitimes de la société dans la mesure où vous nous avez fait part d’une demande d’information, ou avez souhaité prendre contact avec nous.

 

Les renseignements rassemblés seront communiqués au seul destinataire suivant : Visionimo. Ces données feront l’objet de traitement dans notre département relation clients et ne seront transmises à aucun de nos prestataires.

Vos informations seront conservées pour un délai de 3 ans.

Vous garderez un droit de regard sur vos informations. Vous pourrez demander leur modification et suppression et exercer votre droit à la limitation du traitement. Vous pourrez exercer ces droits à tout moment. Pour cela, vous pourrez contacter notre Service juridique :

  • Par courriel : visionimovetpractice@gmail.com ;
  • Par courrier postal à l’adresse suivante : INQUYST Ltd Shropshire house 179, Tottenham Court Road, Bloomsbury W1T 7NZ, London
Les données enregistrées dans le formulaire de prise de rendez-vous en ligne sont acheminées vers le compte de Visionimo par la plateforme Cliniko.com, dans le but de créer une fiche client, afin de fournir le service requis et de pouvoir communiquer avec le client à propos de son rendez-vous. Cliniko.com respecte la loi Européenne concernant le traitement des données personnelles.
 
Une possibilité est offerte aux clients de souscrire à une mailing liste sur la base du consentement eclairé. L’ajout de l’adresse mail du client à cette liste est volontaire et non automatique. Une fois souscrit à la mailing list, le client a la possibilité de se désabonner sur simple demande. 
 

Aussi, vous pouvez retirer votre consentement au traitement de vos données à tout moment ou vous opposer au traitement de vos données. Vous pouvez également exercer un droit à la portabilité sur vos données personnelles.

 

Si après avoir contacté notre service juridique, vous constatez que vos droits « Informatiques et Libertés » ne sont pas respectés, vous pourrez adresser une réclamation à la Commission nationale de l’Informatique et des Libertés ou CNIL, 3 Places de Fontenoy, 75007 Paris.

 

Note : Les informations marquées d’astérisques sont obligatoires et doivent impérativement être fournies. Il s’agit de renseignements nécessaires à la fourniture des services ou la conclusion du contrat.

 

2) COOKIES

Un cookie est un petit fichier, stocké sur le disque dur d’un utilisateur par le site Web. Son but est de recueillir des données relatives aux habitudes de navigation de l’utilisateur.

 

Visionimo n’utilise des cookies que dans le cadre de statistiques de fréquentation du site, via Google Analytics ou d’un fichier pixel.

Data privacy policy

1) PERSONAL DATA

The data gathered through the « Connect with us » form is saved in an electronic format by Visionimo. The data controller person is Sabine Rutili, visionimovetpractice@gmail.com.

 

The data is stored for the needs of the service carried out by Visionimovet.com. The data is processed upon legitimate interests of the company, and in the event you have put through a query or would like to contact us.

 

The data gathered by Visionimovet.com is only communicated to the recipient which is Visionimo. The data will be processed by our customer care department et will not be transferred to a 3rd party.

 

Your data will be stored for a duration of 3 years.

 

You retain legal right to access to your information at any time. You can demand the modification or deletion of your data. You can limit or oppose the processing of your data. You can exercise this right at any time. On this instance, please, contact our legal service :

  • By email at : visionimovetpractice@gmail.com
  • By post at the following address : INQUYST Ltd Shropshire house 179, Tottenham Court Road Bloomsbury W1T 7NZ London
When clients book an online appointment, personal data is collected via a 3rd party called Cliniko.com. This 3rd party is GDPR compliant. The personal data collected allow creation of a client file and enables communication with the client, as to provide the service requested.

Clients will be offered to opt-in or opt-out of marketing communication. The client is not automatically subscribed to a mailing list upon booking an online appointment. They have to actively give their informed consent. Clients are also free to unsubscribe at any time from marketing communications, even if they had consented to it.

 

You can also retract your consent to the processing of your data at any time or oppose its processing. You have a right to exercise personal data portability.

In the event you have contacted our service and you noticed your rights are not respected, you can write a complaint to the Information Commissioner’s Office.

When you book a video appointment with a Visionimo vet, you’ll be redirected towards our dedicated platforms for appointment bookings. It is GDPR compliant, and such is the platform used for the video calls.

 

Visionimo does not process payments and does not store bank card details.

Note : the information marked with an asterisk are mandatory and must be provided. This information relates to the provision of the service or the completion of a contract.

 

2) COOKIES

Cookies are small files stored on a user’s hard drive by the website. Its goal is to gather data pertaining to website traffic. Visionimovet.com only uses cookies via Google Analytics and a Pixel file, as to draw statistics about visitors’ attendance.

Connect with us

Terms of services

[Visionimo Terms and Conditions of Service]

These terms and conditions govern the use of our services and digital content. If you do not wish to agree to anything within these terms, please do not use the service and leave this website. By accessing this site or using the services, you are deemed to have accepted and agree to be bound by these terms and conditions.

Summary of Terms – TLDR;

These are key points you need to know when using our services. We recommend you read the full terms and conditions shown further down, but we have condensed the key things immediately below:

  • Visionimo is a web-based video consultation veterinary service. Our service allows you to speak to a qualified vet via a fixed-price, 15 minute online video call in order to discuss your pet’s health and wellbeing.
  • Our service is a web-based platform that connects you to a qualified veterinarian – we are not a veterinary practice and our service is not intended to be a substitute for a traditional vet.
  • This service is not for emergency pet care or prescriptions. For emergencies or medicines please contact a registered veterinary practice.
  • We respect your privacy. We will only use your personal data lawfully and, where necessary, with your consent. Please see our [insert link to PRIVACY POLICY] for more information.
  • You must be at least 18 years old to use the site or services.
  • Feedback and complaints. We hope that you will love our service but if you have any issues or comments (including positive ones), please let us know by contacting us through the contact page on the site or by emailing us at visionimovetpractice@gmail.com

Our terms

  1. These terms
    • What these terms cover. These are the terms and conditions on which we supply services and digital content to you.
    • Why you should read them. Please read these terms carefully before you use our services or digital content. These terms tell you who we are, how we will provide services to you, how you and we may change or end the contract, what to do if there is a problem and other important information. If you think that there is a mistake in these terms, please contact us to discuss.
  2. Information about us and how to contact us
    • Who we are. We are Visionimo, the trading name of Inquyst Limited a company registered in England and Wales. Our company registration number is 12479826 and our registered office is at First Floor, Shropshire House, 179, Tottenham Court Road, London, United Kingdom, W1T 7NZ. Our registered VAT number is GB 352 7571 87.
    • App use and operating system requirements. Where you use our mobile app, the rules and policies of the relevant app store may also apply to your use of the services or digital content.

Use of the site, services or digital content may require certain minimum operating system requirements in order to operate fully and these will be notified to you on the site or app store, as appropriate.

  • How to contact us. You can contact us by using our [link to] contact form or writing to us at visionimovetpractice@gmail.com.
  • How we may contact you. If we have to contact you we will do so by telephone or by writing to you at the email address or postal address you provided to us.
  • « Writing » includes emails. When we use the words « writing » or « written » in these terms, this includes emails.
  1. Use of the services, site and digital content
    • Age requirement. You must be over 18 in order to use our services.
    • How to use our service. Please book an appointment by following the instructions on the site. Once you have selected an available time slot, you will need to register your details with us and pay the fee for the consultation. You will be emailed a confirmation of the appointment time and a receipt for your payment shortly afterwards.
    • Your responsibility to provide accurate and up to date information. Please ensure that the details you provide on the site are accurate and up to date, including email address, telephone number and payment credentials. We may need to contact you after an appointment, so it is important to avoid errors.
    • Charges. Our prices are set out on the site and are fixed and inclusive of VAT. If we change our pricing, we will update this on the site and the new pricing will be effective for all bookings placed after the new pricing has been published on the site.
    • Refunds. Unfortunately, we cannot offer a refund if you cancel the appointment. If we need to postpone an appointment, we will let you know as soon as possible and offer you the opportunity to rebook another time slot. In the unlikely event that it is not possible to reschedule and appointment that we have been unable to keep, we will refund any charges already paid by you within14 days.
    • We only provide services in English and French languages Our vets are mostly English-speaking, but we do have French-speaking vets, subject to availability when booking.
  2. Our service
    • Visionimo provides a secure, video based veterinary support service. The service allows you to book an appointment with a qualified veterinary practitioner in order to discuss any health and wellbeing issues your pet may have.
    • We are not a primary pet healthcare provider and no physical examination of your pet is possible via our service. If your pet requires a physical examination, you should make an appointment with your primary veterinary provider. During any appointment with one of our vets, they may advise you to seek primary healthcare.
    • Visionimo does not provide veterinary advice itself; this is provided by the vet that you book the appointment with when using our service. The vet will assess your pet’s needs based on the information you provide during the appointment and Visionimo is not responsible for the outcome of an appointment. We will, however, ensure that any vet we connect you with is qualified and experienced.
  3. Scope of Licence
    • We own all intellectual property rights globally in our site and any app, and any material published on it and we reserve all our rights, including copyright. Under these terms, we grant you a limited licence to access the site for the purpose of receiving our services and viewing the site content
    • You may download or print a copy of any pages on the site in connection with your normal use of the services, but you may not copy, sub-licence or otherwise make our site or any part of it available to any other person without our consent. You must not modify the site or any copies you make of its pages or the content on it.
    • Any images or video content that you upload to the site or otherwise send to us (and all intellectual property rights in them) belong to you. In providing them to us, you grant us and our vets a licence to share them in connection with the provision of our services to you (for example, where we need to share your content with other vets or healthcare providers.
    • Acceptable use. You must:
      • Use the site lawfully and in accordance with these terms and not for any unlawful, fraudulent or malicious purpose;
      • Not infringe our or any third party’s intellectual property rights in your use of the site or our services;
      • Not transmit any material that is defamatory, offensive or otherwise objectionable in your use of the site or the services;
      • Not use the site or service in a way that could cause damage or impairment to our systems and security;
      • Not collect or “mine” our site or systems for data or information except as permitted by these terms;
      • Be courteous and polite during any appointment arranged through our service. Abuse or bad behaviour may lead to an appointment being terminated, forfeiture of fees paid by you and being barred from the site or from using our service.
  1. Our rights to make changes
    • We may update this site or any app in order to improve it, deal with security issues or alter the functionality. Where an app is updated, this may occur automatically, depending on your mobile device settings. If you do not agree to such updates, you may not be able to continue using the site or app.
    • It may be necessary for us to change these terms to reflect changes in the law or practice regulations. If we do change these terms, we will give you as much notice as possible before the changes take effect, either by email or through the site to let you know. If you do not wish to accept any updated terms, please do not use the site or our service.
  2. Our responsibility for loss or damage suffered by you
    • We provide this site, the content and the services on an as is basis and make no representations, warranties or guarantees, either express or implied that the site, content or services are accurate, complete or up to date. We are responsible for connecting you to a qualified vet but not for the advice that a vet may give to you. If you have concerns about the advice a vet has given you or believe the vet has committed malpractice, please contact the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (https://www.rcvs.org.uk/concerns/).
    • Medicines and Emergencies. Our service is not suitable for situations where an animal requires urgent or life-saving care. Please contact a suitable veterinary practice for emergencies.

We are not a pharmacy and do not issue or supply prescriptions or medicines. Please speak to a registered veterinary practice for pharmaceutical needs.

  • We are responsible to you for foreseeable loss and damage caused by us. If we fail to comply with these terms, we are responsible for loss or damage you suffer that is a foreseeable result of our breaking this contract or our failing to use reasonable care and skill, but we are not responsible for any loss or damage that is not foreseeable. Loss or damage is foreseeable if either it is obvious that it will happen or if, at the time the contract was made, both we and you knew it might happen.
  • We do not exclude or limit in any way our liability to you where it would be unlawful to do so. This includes liability for death or personal injury caused by our negligence or the negligence of our employees, agents or subcontractors; for fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation.
  • We will not be liable for damage which you could have avoided by following our advice to apply an update offered to you free of charge or for damage which was caused by you failing to correctly follow installation instructions or to have in place the minimum system requirements advised by us.
  1. How we may use your personal information
    • How we may use your personal information. We will only use your personal information as set out in our [insert PRIVACY POLICY].
  2. Other important terms
    • We may transfer this agreement to someone else. We may transfer our rights and obligations under these terms to another organisation. We will always tell you in writing if this happens and we will ensure that the transfer will not affect your rights under the contract.
    • Nobody else has any rights under this contract. This contract is between you and us. No other person shall have any rights to enforce any of its terms.
    • If a court finds part of this contract illegal, the rest will continue in force. Each of the paragraphs of these terms operates separately. If any court or relevant authority decides that any of them are unlawful, the remaining paragraphs will remain in full force and effect.
    • Even if we delay in enforcing this contract, we can still enforce it later. If we do not insist immediately that you do anything you are required to do under these terms, or if we delay in taking steps against you in respect of your breaking this contract, that will not mean that you do not have to do those things and it will not prevent us taking steps against you at a later date.
    • Which laws apply to this contract and where you may bring legal proceedings. These terms are governed by English law and you can bring legal proceedings in respect of the services in the English courts. If you live in Scotland you can bring legal proceedings in respect of the products in either the Scottish or the English courts. If you live in Northern Ireland you can bring legal proceedings in respect of the products in either the Northern Irish or the English courts.
    • Alternative dispute resolution. Alternative dispute resolution is a process where an independent body considers the facts of a dispute and seeks to resolve it, without you having to go to court. If you are not happy with how we have handled any complaint, you may want to contact the alternative dispute resolution provider we use.